All leukoplakias represent one of the following:
- Epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma
- Hyperkeratosis of unknown etiology
Leukoplakia is most commonly found in middle-aged or elderly men. Leukoplakia in women can also involve the vulva, usually in obese postmenopausal females.
K13.21 – Leukoplakia of oral mucosa, including tongue
274134003 – Leukoplakia
- Frictional keratoses, specifically morsicatio mucosae oris and benign alveolar ridge keratosis, are located on nonkeratinized areas that are readily traumatized and on the alveolar ridge, respectively, and have specific histopathologic findings.
- Oral hairy leukoplakia is most frequently seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, and Epstein-Barr virus is present in the biopsy.
- Lichen planus is usually bilateral, symmetric, and reticulated.
- Candidiasis resolves with antifungal therapy.
- Smokeless tobacco keratosis occurs where the tobacco is placed.
- Nicotinic stomatitis occurs on the palate almost exclusively and is symmetric with red punctate areas.
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Dyskeratosis congenita (these are true leukoplakias that develop in patients with this disease)
- Leukoedema is diffuse, gray-white, and disappears on stretching.
- White sponge nevus is an extremely rare oral condition with specific histopathologic findings.
- Uremic stomatitis