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Linea nigra
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Linea nigra

Contributors: Nicholas Theodosakis MD, PhD, Alexis Perkins MD, Nikki Levin MD, Susan Burgin MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Linea nigra (Latin for "black line"), also known as linea gravidarum, is a linear midline band of macular hyperpigmentation that runs vertically from the pubis to the xiphoid process. This entity is much more common in individuals with darker skin phototypes. It is most commonly seen in pregnant women, particularly those with darker skin phototypes.

Linea nigra is thought to be a consequence of increased production of melanin secondary to increased circulating levels of estrogen, progesterone, and melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) in pregnancy. Upregulation by human placenta lipids of tyrosinase has also been hypothesized to play a role. In 90% of pregnant women, hyperpigmentation of some type is seen, including darkening of the areolae, ephelides, scars, or melasma. Women with lighter skin phototypes develop hyperpigmentation less often than women with darker pigmentation. Linea nigra tends to appear around the second or third trimester. After birth, the line fades over time, but it may never disappear entirely.

In a population-based study of Nigerians, linea nigra was found to be present in both male and female patients. For males, incidence peaked at 40% in the 11- to 15-year-old age group, whereas in females, incidence was highest in the 16- to 30-year-old group, in which 85% were affected. Pregnant women were 60 times more likely than nonpregnant women to have linea nigra. In males, an increased incidence has been noted in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Its use as a screening tool for prostate cancer has been suggested, but it was not found to be a sensitive marker in one study.

Related topic: linea nigra in newborn

Codes

ICD10CM:
L81.8 – Other specified disorders of pigmentation
O26.90 – Pregnancy related conditions, unspecified, unspecified trimester

SNOMEDCT:
90751002 – Linea nigra

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Last Reviewed:08/12/2020
Last Updated:08/12/2020
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Linea nigra
Linea nigra : Abdomen, Brown color, Linear configuration
Clinical image of Linea nigra
A linear brown band above and below the umbilicus.
Copyright © 2021 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.