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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Malignant hyperthermia
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Potentially life-threatening emergency

Malignant hyperthermia

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Contributors: Michael W. Winter MD, Jamie Adams MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

A hypermetabolic response to certain inhaled anesthetic drugs with sudden, intense temperature elevation (hyperthermia) and muscle rigidity. Other signs include hyperkalemia, tachycardia, tachypnea, acidosis, elevated carbon dioxide, increased oxygen consumption, and rhabdomyolysis. Malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis constitutes a medical emergency. Monitoring core temperature during surgical use of inhaled anesthetics can limit MH crisis. MH crisis can be treated by immediately stopping the triggering anesthetic, hyperventilation, administration of dantrolene, and lowering body temperature. Failure to do so leads to severe organ damage and death.

A predisposition to MH crisis is associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance caused by mutations in RYR1 and CACNA1S genes. Central core disease, King-Denborough syndrome, and central nuclear myopathy are also conditions that predispose patients to MH crisis.

For more information, see OMIM.

Codes

ICD10CM:
T88.3XXA – Malignant hyperthermia due to anesthesia, initial encounter

SNOMEDCT:
405501007 – Malignant Hyperthermia

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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References

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Last Updated: 03/29/2017
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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Malignant hyperthermia
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View all Images (2)
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Malignant hyperthermia (Early Signs) : Rigidity, Sinus tachycardia, CO2 elevated
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