Marburg Filoviridae virus infection
Initial symptoms of Marburg include the sudden onset of 4-5 days of fever, chills, headache, weakness, myalgias, rash, chest pain, cough, sore throat, prostration, and conjunctivitis. The disease may progress to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, jaundice, pancreatitis, anorexia, photophobia, delirium, shock, liver failure, hemorrhaging, and multisystem dysfunction.
The incubation period is 2-14 days. The reservoir host of Marburg virus is a type of fruit bat native to Africa, the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Human and nonhuman primates can become infected. Person-to-person transmission has been documented and may occur through contact with bodily fluids, including the bodily fluids of the deceased. There is no vaccine available, but convalescent human plasma may be helpful.
Zookeepers, tourists, owners of exotic pets, and veterinarians are susceptible to contracting Marburg.
In January 2009 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the first known case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in the United States. The patient had contracted the virus while visiting Uganda.
A98.3 – Marburg virus disease
77503002 – Marburg virus disease
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Yellow fever
- Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
- Typhoid fever
- Rift Valley fever
- Omsk hemorrhagic fever
- Epidemic typhus
- Endemic typhus
- Acute meningococcemia
- Lassa fever
- Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- Fulminant hepatic necrosis
- Kyasanur Forest disease
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)
- Argentine hemorrhagic fever
- Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
- Sabia virus
- Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever