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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Marburg filoviridae virus infection
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Other Resources UpToDate PubMed
Potentially life-threatening emergency

Marburg filoviridae virus infection

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Contributors: Steve Go MD, Edith Lederman MD, Noah Craft MD, PhD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Marburg virus is an RNA virus of the Filoviridae family that causes the most virulent viral hemorrhagic fever indigenous to Africa. Outbreaks have been reported in Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The mortality rate of Marburg is approximately 25%-90%, depending on the infecting viral strain.

Initial symptoms of Marburg include the sudden onset of 4-5 days of fever, chills, headache, weakness, myalgias, rash, chest pain, cough, sore throat, prostration, and conjunctivitis. The disease may progress to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, jaundice, pancreatitis, anorexia, photophobia, delirium, shock, liver failure, hemorrhaging, and multisystem dysfunction.

The incubation period is 2-14 days. It is probably transmitted to humans by nonhuman primates; however, the actual natural reservoir of the virus remains uncertain. Person-to-person transmission has been documented and may occur through contact with bodily fluids, including the bodily fluids of the deceased. There is no vaccine available, but convalescent human plasma may be helpful.

Zookeepers, tourists, owners of exotic pets, and veterinarians are susceptible to contracting Marburg.

In January 2009 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the first known case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in the United States. The patient had contracted the virus while visiting Uganda.

Codes

ICD10CM:
A98.3 – Marburg virus disease

SNOMEDCT:
77503002 – Marburg virus disease

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Diagnostic Pearls

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

In the absence of hemorrhagic findings, all other tropical fevers and worldwide causes of fever with or without rash must be ruled out.

Best Tests

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Management Pearls

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Therapy

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References

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Last Updated: 09/29/2017
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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Marburg filoviridae virus infection
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Marburg filoviridae virus infection (Generalization Phase) : Chest pain, Chills, Fever, Headache, Vomiting, Truncal rash, Conjunctival injection, Myalgia, WBC decreased
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