The precise cause has not been identified. Factors that may contribute to the disease are ear blockage or anatomical defects causing fluid buildup, abnormal immune responses, allergies, viral infections, genetic predispositions, head trauma, and migraines.
The most widely accepted pathophysiologic cause of the disease is endolymphatic hydrops (dysfunction of absorption and production of endolymph fluid).
Meniere disease may occur at any age, but it most commonly presents in adults aged 40-60. Its prevalence has been reported as high as 513/100 000.
There is currently no cure, but a range of treatments may be helpful in managing the condition. Treatment options include medications, salt restriction and diuretics, cognitive therapy, transtympanic injections, pressure pulse treatment, and surgery.
H81.09 – Ménière's disease, unspecified ear
13445001 – Meniere Disease
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls