Mumps in Child
Mumps significantly declined in the United States after 1967, when the mumps vaccine was introduced, and again in 1977, when the vaccine was recommended for routine use. The incidence of mumps continued to decline with implementation of a two-dose MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine in 1989. The MMR vaccine prevents most, but not all, cases of mumps and complications caused by the disease. Two doses of the vaccine are 88% (range: 66%-95%) effective at protecting against mumps; one dose is 78% (range: 49%-92%) effective.
Mumps epidemics can still occur in communities of (even highly) vaccinated individuals in close contact, such as in dormitories and on sports teams, due to waning immunity after childhood vaccination allowing for breakthrough cases. Mumps outbreaks can occur any time of year. Mumps is rare in infants less than one year of age.
The prognosis is usually excellent, although, in rare situations, complications can occur including meningoencephalomyelitis, orchitis and epididymitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, myocarditis, arthritis, thyroiditis, deafness, and dacryoadenitis and optic neuritis. The risk of spontaneous abortion is increased in women who contract mumps during the first trimester of pregnancy. Infection usually results in lifelong immunity.
B26.9 – Mumps without complication
36989005 – Mumps
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls