Mycobacterium fortuitum infection
Less frequently, infection with this pathogen may cause chronic nodular lung disease or lymphadenitis, especially in the subset of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic vomiting.
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a risk factor for M fortuitum infection, although Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium kansasii are more frequent pathogens in that patient population. Patients with HIV or other severe immunodeficiency are at risk for disseminated infection.
Immunocompetent patients may present with skin infection due to M fortuitum. Most patients will report antecedent trauma. The clinical appearance of the wound is nonspecific.
Mortality due to M fortuitum infection is rare, seen only in patients with disseminated disease or extensive pulmonary disease. Prognosis at most sites is good with debridement and antibiotics. The exception is the lungs, where chronic suppression of the infection and prevention of progression represent the goals of care.
A31.8 – Other mycobacterial infections
6040009 – Infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Fungal infections: actinomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis
- Other Mycobacterium infections: Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical Mycobacterium infection