Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection
This pathogen has been reported as a cause of lymphadenitis and skeletal infection. Of note, Mycobacterium avium complex is a much more common cause of lymphadenitis than M. scrofulaceum. Patients typically present with enlarging lymph nodes in the anterior cervical chain. The involved lymph nodes are often unilateral and painless. There may be formation of fistulas with drainage to the skin surface.
It can less commonly cause pulmonary disease, skin infection, and disseminated disease.
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a risk factor for M. scrofulaceum infection, although M. avium complex and Mycobacterium kansasii are more frequent pathogens in that patient population.
Optimal therapy of lymphadenitis is not known, but patients are usually treated with a combination of surgical excision and antibiotic therapy.
A31.9 – Mycobacterial infection, unspecified
19020001 – Infection due to Mycobacterium scrofulaceum