Neuroblastoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that arises from neural crest cells. It is the most common solid tumor of infancy and childhood; typical age of onset is less than 3 years old. The adrenal glands are the most frequent site of origin, but this tumor can be found anywhere along the sympathetic nervous system chain including the neck, chest, abdomen, or pelvis. Presenting symptoms depend on the site of origin and areas of metastasis if present but may be nonspecific including fatigue, fevers, anorexia, abdominal pain, or joint or bone pains. Less common symptoms include weakness, ataxia, chronic diarrhea, hypertension, or shortness of breath. The presence of Horner syndrome or opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in children should prompt evaluation for this type of tumor. Rarely, neuroblastoma may be an incidental finding on radiology.
Treatment and prognosis depend on whether the tumor is low, intermediate, or high risk. Metastases are associated with a high mortality rate.
ICD10CM: C74.90 – Malignant neoplasm of unspecified part of unspecified adrenal gland