You have been logged out of VisualDx or your session has expired.

Please reload this page and sign into VisualDx to continue.

  VisualDx Mobile   Select Language

Get VisualDx Mobile

There are VisualDx mobile apps available for iOS and Android devices.

You will need a VisualDx account to use the mobile apps.

Already have an account? Sign In or
sign up for a free trial.

Users with VisualDx accounts earn CME credits for using VisualDx.

Already have an account? Sign In or
sign up for a free trial.

Create a Personal Account

E-mail (username)
Verify Password
First Name
Last Name

Personal Account Created

Mobile Access

You can now download VisualDx for your iOS and Android devices. Launch the VisualDx app from your device and sign in using your VisualDx personal account username and password.

CME Certification

Sign in with your personal account to earn and claim CME credits through VisualDx. Credits can be earned by building a differential or looking up a diagnosis.

Version: 7.13.1441   (build df7aed4)
Select Language

Select Region

Send us your feedback

This field is required

Oops! There was an issue during submission. Please try again. If the problem persists, email with your feedback.

Thank You!

We appreciate your feedback and you will be hearing from us soon.


Share This Page

Thank You!

We have sent an e-mail with a link to the current page.


E-mail This Patient Information Sheet

Thank You!

We have sent an e-mail with this patient information.


Image Contributors


  • Christine Ahn MD
    Carl Allen DDS, MSD
    Brandon Ayres MD
    Howard P. Baden MD
    Robert Baran MD
    Keira Barr MD
    Gregory J. Basura MD, Ph.D
    Donald Belsito MD
    Jeffrey D. Bernhard MD
    Jesse Berry MD
    Victor Blanco MD
    Benjamin R. Bohaty MD
    William Bonnez MD
    Sarah Brenner MD
    Robert A. Briggaman MD
    Robert Brodell MD
    Roman Bronfenbrener MD
    Walter Brooks MD
    William Buckley MD
    Philip Bulterys MD, PhD (candidate)
    Susan Burgin MD
    Sonya Burton MD
    Sean P. Bush MD, FACEP
    Jeffrey Callen MD
    Scott Camazine MD
    Michael Cardwell
    Shelley D. Cathcart MD
    Robert Chalmers MD, MRCP, FRCP
    Chia-Yu Chu MD, PhD
    Flavio Ciferri MD
    Maria Rosa Cordisco MD
    Noah Craft MD, PhD
    John T. Crissey MD
    Harold E. Cross MD, PhD
    Charles E. Crutchfield III MD
    Adriana Cruz MD
    Donna Culton MD, PhD
    Bart J. Currie MBBS, FRACP, DTM&H
    Chicky Dadlani MD
    Alexander Dane DO
    C. Ralph Daniel III MD
    Thomas Darling MD, PhD
    William Delaney MD
    Damian P. DiCostanzo MD
    Ncoza Dlova MD
    James Earls MD
    Libby Edwards MD
    Melissa K. Egge MD
    Charles N. Ellis MD
    Rachel Ellis MD
    David Elpern MD
    Nancy Esterly MD
    Stephen Estes MD
    E. Dale Everett MD
    Janet Fairley MD
    David Feingold MD
    Jennifer J. Findeis-Hosey MD
    Benjamin Fisher MD
    Henry Foong MBBS, FRCP
    David Foster MD, MPH
    Brian D. Foy PhD
    Michael Franzblau MD
    Vincent Fulginiti MD
    Sunir J. Garg MD, FACS
    Kevin J. Geary MD
    Lowell Goldsmith MD, MPH
    Sethuraman Gomathy MD
    Bernardo Gontijo MD, PhD
    Kenneth Greer MD
    Kenneth G. Gross MD
    Alan Gruber MD
    Nathan D. Gundacker MD
    Akshya Gupta MD
    Vidal Haddad MSC, PhD, MD
    Edward Halperin MD, MA
    Ronald Hansen MD
    John Harvey
    Rizwan Hassan MD
    Michael Hawke MD
    Jason E. Hawkes MD
    Peter W. Heald MD
    David G. Hicks MD
    Sarah Hocker DO
    Ryan J. Hoefen MD, PhD
    Li-Yang Hsu MD
    William Huang MD
    Sanjana Iyengar MD
    Alvin H. Jacobs MD
    Saagar Jadeja MD
    Shahbaz A. Janjua MD
    Joshua J. Jarvis MD
    Kit Johnson
    Zachary John Jones MD
    Robert Kalb MD
    A. Paul Kelly MD
    Henry Kempe MD
    Loren Ketai MD
    Sidney Klaus MD
    Ashwin Kosambia MD
    Jessica A. Kozel MD
    Carl Krucke
    Mario E. Lacouture MD
    Joseph Lam MD
    Alfred T. Lane MD
    Edith Lederman MD
    Nahyoung Grace Lee MD
    Pedro Legua MD, PhD
    Robert Levin MD
    Bethany Lewis MD
    Sue Lewis-Jones FRCP, FRCPCH
    Taisheng Li MD
    Christine Liang MD
    Shari Lipner MD, PhD
    Adam Lipworth MD
    Jason Maguire MD
    Mark Malek MD, MPH
    Jere Mammino DO
    Ricardo Mandojana MD
    Lynne Margesson MD
    Thomas J. Marrie MD
    Maydel Martinez MD
    Ralph Massey MD
    Patrick McCleskey MD
    Karen McKoy MD
    Thomas McMeekin MD
    Josette McMichael MD
    Somchai Meesiri MD
    Joseph F. Merola MD
    Mary Gail Mercurio MD
    Anis Miladi MD
    Larry E. Millikan MD
    Dan Milner Jr. MD
    Zaw Min MD
    Stephanie Montero
    Alastair Moore MD
    Keith Morley MD
    Dean Morrell MD
    Samuel Moschella MD
    Rehan Naseemuddin MD
    Taimor Nawaz MD
    Vic Newcomer MD
    John Nguyen MD
    Matilda Nicholas MD
    Thomas P. Nigra MD
    Steven Oberlender MD, PhD
    Maria Teresa Ochoa MD
    Art Papier MD
    Lawrence Parish MD
    Tanner Parrent MD
    Mukesh Patel MD
    Lauren Patty-Daskivich MD
    David Peng MD, MPH
    Robert Penne MD
    Nitipong Permpalung MD
    Miriam Pomeranz MD
    Doug Powell MD
    Harold S. Rabinovitz MD
    Christopher J. Rapuano MD
    Sireesha Reddy MD
    Angela Restrepo MD, PhD
    Bertrand Richert MD, PhD
    J. Martin Rodriguez, MD, FACP
    Theodore Rosen MD
    Misha Rosenbach MD
    Scott Schiffman MD
    Robert H. Schosser MD
    Glynis A. Scott MD
    Carlos Seas MD, MSc
    Deniz Seçkin MD
    Daniel Sexton MD
    Paul K. Shitabata MD
    Tor Shwayder MD, FAAP, FAAD
    Elaine Siegfried MD
    Gene Sienkiewicz MD
    Christye Sisson
    Philip I. Song MD
    Mary J. Spencer MD, FAAP
    Lawrence B. Stack MD
    Sarah Stein MD
    William Van Stoecker MD
    Frances J. Storrs MD
    Erik J. Stratman MD
    Lindsay C. Strowd MD
    Erika Summers MD
    Belinda Tan MD, PhD
    Robert Tomsick MD
    Hensin Tsao MD, PhD
    Richard P. Usatine MD
    Jenny Valverde MD
    Vishalakshi Viswanath MD
    Susan Voci MD
    Lisa Wallin ANP, FCCWS
    Douglas Walsh MD
    Ryan R. Walsh MD
    George Watt MD
    Clayton E. Wheeler MD
    Sally-Ann Whelan MS, NP, CWOCN
    Jan Willems MD, PhD
    James Henry Willig MD, MPH
    Karen Wiss MD
    Vivian Wong MD, PhD
    Sook-Bin Woo MS, DMD, MMSc
    Jamie Woodcock MD
    Stephen J. Xenias MD
    Nathaniel Yohannes
    Lisa Zaba MD
    Vijay Zawar MD
    Bonnnie Zhang MD
    Carolyn Ziemer MD
    Jeffrey P. Zwerner MD, PhD


  • Am. Journal of Trop. Med & Hygiene
  • Armed Forces Pest Management Board
  • Blackwell Publishing
  • Bugwood Network
  • Centers For Disease Control and Prevention
  • Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Mèdicas (CIDEIM)
  • Dermatology Online Journal
  • East Carolina University (ECU), Division of Dermatology
  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Massachusetts Medical Society
  • Oxford University Press
  • Radiological Society of North America
  • Washington Hospital Center
  • Wikipedia
  • World Health Organization
ContentsSynopsisCodesLook ForDiagnostic PearlsDifferential Diagnosis & PitfallsBest TestsManagement PearlsTherapyReferencesView all Images (7)
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Print Images (7)
Contributors: Zaw Min MD, FACP, Rasha Abdulmassih MD, Ricardo M. La Hoz MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed


Cysticercosis is defined as the systemic invasive tissue infection of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The larva can infect muscle, eyes and brain, and other tissue. There is a frequent misconception that cysticercosis is acquired by eating pork; this is not the case. Human ingestion of pork containing larval cysts of T. solium leads to taeniasis, a localized human intestinal adult tapeworm infection. Cysticercosis, on the other hand, is acquired through ingestion of T. solium eggs, usually via fecal-oral transmission from a tapeworm carrier (often an asymptomatic household member that handles food). When cysticercosis involves the central nervous system (CNS), it is known as neurocysticercosis.

Neurocysticercosis mainly affects people living in the developing world. Although its exact prevalence is unknown, it is endemic in Latin American countries, sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Korea, and China. It has long been regarded as a rare disease in developed countries. However, given advances in globalization and a growing numbers of immigrants from regions endemic for T. solium, both incidence and awareness of neurocysticercosis have significantly increased in industrialized countries. In the United States, there are an estimated 1000 new cases of neurocysticercosis each year, with most cases reported from New York, California, Texas, Oregon, and Illinois. In a nationwide study examining hospitalization frequency for neurocysticercosis in the United States between 2003 and 2012, Hispanic individuals were at the highest risk, in particular males 20-44 years of age. Sporadic cases involving travel to and from T. solium-endemic countries occur in other states as well. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers cysticercosis one of the Neglected Parasitic Infections targeted for public health action.

When food or water contaminated with T. solium eggs is ingested by humans, the eggs hatch into embryos that egress into the blood stream through the intestinal mucosa. The embryos lodge in tissues of end organs and transform into larvae (cysticerci). Cysticercal cysts undergo 4 phases of development: the vesicular stage (cyst with a living larva), the colloidal stage (cyst with a degenerating/dying larva), the granular nodular stage, and the calcified stage. Of note, living larvae are only present in the first 2 stages (vesicular and colloidal), and these are the only stages that require and respond to anti-parasitic therapy.

When larvae invade into the CNS, it is known as neurocysticercosis. Depending on the location, neurocysticercosis is divided into parenchymal and extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. The extraparenchymal form of neurocysticercosis is further subdivided into ventricular, subarachnoid, Sylvian fissure, ocular, and spinal types. Patients with neurocysticercosis can be asymptomatic. When they are symptomatic, clinical presentations of parenchymal and extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis are distinctly different. Refer to Look For section for further details.

Parenchymal Neurocysticercosis
Parenchymal neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy/seizure in endemic areas. Seizures develop when the cysts either degenerate or are in viable stage. Depending on the location and the number of the cerebral parenchymal lesions, patients can present with motor or sensory deficits, language difficulty, parkinsonism, or lacunar or large cerebral infarcts from cerebral ischemia or cysticercosis angiitis. When there is an intense inflammatory response around the cysts, the patients become comatose, obtunded, or encephalopathic (cysticercosis encephalitis).

Extraparenchymal Neurocysticercosis
Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis presents with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus from blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow tracks by ventricular cysticerci. In cases of intraventricular neurocysticercosis, 2 syndromes are of note: Bruns syndrome and double-compartment hydrocephalus syndrome. Bruns syndrome is characterized by episodes of sudden loss of consciousness related to head movements because the cysts in the 4th ventricle cause intermittent obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct by a ball-valve mechanism. Double-compartment hydrocephalous syndrome is defined as both 3rd and 4th ventricular dilatation secondary to the simultaneous obstruction of cerebral aqueduct and foramina of Luschka and Magendie by intraventricular cysts.

Cysticerci within the subarachnoid space of Sylvian fissures or CSF cisterns can develop into multi-lobulated grape-like clusters, known as racemose cysticercosis. These lesions are usually larger (>10 cm long) and can occlude the foramina of Luschka or Magendie, causing obstructive hydrocephalous. The condition can also cause basal meningitis or arachnoiditis with cranial nerve entrapment presenting as visual field defects and cranial nerve palsies.

Spinal neurocysticercosis is rare, and patients typically present with paresthesia, radicular nerve pain, or bowel/urinary incontinence or retention.

Ocular neurocysticercosis can involve subretinal space, vitreous humor, anterior chamber, conjunctiva, or extraocular muscles. Subretinal ocular cysticercosis is considered to be a form of neurocysticercosis, whereas involvement of anterior chamber of eye alone is regarded as extraneural cysticercosis. The clinical manifestations of ocular cysticercosis are eye pain, impaired eyesight, or double vision, depending on the involved structures.


B69.0 – Cysticercosis of central nervous system

230215006 – cerebral cysticercosis

Look For

Subscription Required

Diagnostic Pearls

Subscription Required

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Major differential diagnoses are:

Best Tests

Subscription Required

Management Pearls

Subscription Required


Subscription Required


Subscription Required

Last Updated: 03/11/2016
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.
Print 7 Images
View all Images (7)
(with subscription)
Neurocysticercosis : Seizures, Headache, Nausea/vomiting, Mental status alteration
Imaging Studies image of Neurocysticercosis
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.