Oral candidiasis in Child
Although not common in children over the age of 12 months, it may occur in children who are on antibiotics, who have an underlying endocrine disorder (eg, type 1 diabetes mellitus), or who are immunosuppressed due to primary immunodeficiency disorders or secondary to malignancy, immunosuppressive medication, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
The child may be symptom free or may complain of a burning tongue and soreness or pain in the mouth or pain on swallowing.
Oral candidiasis occurs in children in three main clinical forms. The most common form in children is the pseudomembranous variety: white plaque formation typically appears on the tongue, lips, inner surface of the cheeks, and palate and can leave behind punctate bleeding and patches of reddened mucosa when scraped.
In children with HIV infection, oral thrush is the most common candidal infection. The presentation, however, differs, and these children may show signs of all of the types of mucous membrane infections.
Candida at the corners of the mouth is known as angular cheilitis or perlèche. Crusting, small ulcers, or fissures can be present at the angles of the mouth.
In median rhomboid glossitis, a smooth, red, diamond-shaped area is present on the dorsal surface of the tongue.
Related topic: Angular cheilitis
B37.0 – Candidal stomatitis
79740000 – Oral candidiasis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Aphthous ulcer
- Lichen planus – Usually reticulated and erythematous rather than plaque-like.
- Geographic tongue
- Diphtheria – The membrane in diphtheria can be mistaken for candidiasis, although in diphtheria there may be hemorrhagic crusts around the mouth and nares.
- White sponge nevus – There may be a family history of this very uncommon genodermatosis.
- Chronic cheek chewing
Drug Reaction Data