Alerts and Notices
SynopsisParkinsonism is a generic term for a neurologic syndrome of rigidity and bradykinesia, with or without other symptoms such as tremor. There are many underlying causes of parkinsonism, all involving some level of dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Parkinson disease is the most common neurodegenerative cause of parkinsonism; other neurodegenerative causes include "atypical Parkinson" or "Parkinson plus" syndromes, such as multisystem atrophy, corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Lewy body dementia.
Parkinsonism can also result from medications (drug-induced parkinsonism), especially the dopamine receptor blocking agents such as the antipsychotics and antiemetics. It can result from certain toxins (such as carbon monoxide and organic solvents) as well as metabolic abnormalities (hypoparathyroidism). Structural injuries – chronic repetitive head trauma, hydrocephalus, subcortical small vessel ischemic vasculopathy ("vascular parkinsonism") – can also produce parkinsonism.
Thus the prognosis is variable, from static to progressive, depending on the etiology. Other symptoms and signs along with predisposing medical history and risk factors can yield valuable clues to the etiology.
Related topics: Drug-induced movement disorders
G21.9 – Secondary parkinsonism, unspecified
32798002 – Parkinsonism
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Essential tremor – tremor typically worse with action and sustained posture
- Frontotemporal dementia – decreased executive function
- Alzheimer disease – memory is disproportionately affected
- Huntington disease
- Wilson disease
- Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
- Dystonia (eg, drug induced)
- Stiff person syndrome – often painful
- Depression – sad affect and mood
- Primary lateral sclerosis
Drug Reaction DataBelow is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.