Pseudomonas folliculitis in Child
Alerts and Notices
SynopsisPseudomonas folliculitis, or hot tub folliculitis, is an infection of hair follicles with Pseudomonas bacteria. Outbreaks occur in people after exposure to a contaminated spa, swimming pool, hot tub, or water in the workplace. It is also associated with the use of contaminated water-associated objects, such as loofah sponges, swimming pool inflatables, rubber gloves, and nylon towels. Many outbreaks have been associated with inadequate chlorine levels. However, Pseudomonas is able to grow within biofilms despite normal chlorination. It also can be seen with higher incidence in patients on long-term antibiotic therapy for acne vulgaris.
Clinically, Pseudomonas folliculitis is characterized by tender or pruritic folliculocentric papules preferentially localized to the trunk, buttocks, and extremities. Inflammation of Montgomery's follicles of the breast has also been described in one outbreak in Alaska. Symptoms typically develop within 1-4 days after exposure to the contaminated water source. Infection can be associated with mild fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, and leukocytosis. The cutaneous eruption usually fades within 7-14 days without therapy.
Water sources contaminated with Pseudomonas are also associated with outbreaks of painful plantar nodules termed the Pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome. These patients may or may not have a concomitant folliculitis.
There is no geographic distribution of Pseudomonas folliculitis. However, since hot tubs and natural hot springs are common activities of travelers and since pyodermas (purulent skin diseases) are among the most frequently reported complaints in returning travelers, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted.
L73.8 – Other specified follicular disorders
402921005 – Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Bacterial folliculitis
- Pityrosporum folliculitis
- Allergic contact dermatitis
- Acne (adolescents)
- Keratosis pilaris
- Folliculitis due to herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), or molluscum contagiosum
- Steroid acne
- Insect bites
- Miliaria rubra
- Eosinophilic folliculitis
- Seabather's eruption
Patient Information for Pseudomonas folliculitis in Child
OverviewPseudomonas folliculitis is a type of folliculitis (which literally means "inflammation of the follicle," or hair shaft) that occurs specifically after exposure to a type of bacterium, called Pseudomonas, that grows in poorly chlorinated hot tubs and/or whirlpools. Thus, this type of folliculitis is often called hot tub rash. The rash can develop anytime from several hours to days after the incident and is most noticeable in areas of the skin that were covered by a bathing suit or clothes at the time of exposure.
Who’s At RiskAnyone who uses a contaminated hot tub, whirlpool, or swimming pool can develop hot tub rash.
Signs & SymptomsThe most common locations for hot tub rash include:
- Groin and buttocks ("bathing suit" distribution)
- Abdomen or lower back
- Chest or upper back
- Upper arms
- Upper legs
Hot tub rash typically arises within 1-4 days of exposure to the contaminated source. In addition to the rash, symptoms can include mild fever, headache, sore throat, and fatigue. Swollen and tender lymph nodes (glands that help produce antibodies, special proteins that fight off infection) may occur. Breast tenderness occasionally develops in both men and women, as glands in the nipple may become infected.
Although hot tub rash usually resolves within 7-14 days without treatment, the rash may leave behind patches of darker (hyperpigmented) skin. These patches are more pronounced in darker-skinned people and may take months to return to normal pigmentation.
Self-Care GuidelinesIn order to prevent hot tub rash, proper maintenance and chlorination of pools, spas, and hot tubs is essential. Sponges and loofahs should be completely dried between uses in order to kill any bacteria.
If the rash is itchy, an over-the-counter antihistamine may be helpful.
When to Seek Medical CareMake an appointment with your doctor if you develop an itchy or tender rash, especially if it is associated with fever, swollen lymph glands, or other symptoms.
TreatmentsYour doctor may wish to obtain a bacterial culture of one of the pus-filled bumps in order to establish the diagnosis.
No special therapy is usually required. However, in severe cases, your physician may recommend the following:
- Acetic acid compresses
- Oral antibiotic pills such as ciprofloxacin
- Topical antibiotic cream such as gentamicin
Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1132. New York: Mosby, 2003.
Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp.1860-1861, 1901-1902. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Pseudomonas folliculitis in Child