Emphysema is a chronic medical condition. While pharmacologic and lifestyle changes may improve symptoms, in general, patients have a gradual increase in symptoms and burden of disease with time. The primary cause is smoking and/or inhalation of other pollutants. Pulmonary emphysema can also be secondary to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, which leads to unopposed elastase activity in the lung. Treatments include lifestyle changes, supplemental oxygen, medications, and possibly surgery.
J43.9 – Emphysema, unspecified
87433001 – Pulmonary emphysema
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls