Typical signs and symptoms include exertional dyspnea, chronic dry cough, crackles, and fatigue. Digital clubbing occurs in about half of patients and, in the later stages of illness, right heart failure and cor pulmonale may be noted. Onset is typically in patients aged 50-70, with smokers at higher risk. It may be associated with pharmaceuticals such as cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, nitrosureas, methotrexate, and nitrofurantoin; radiation therapy; and environmental exposures to stone, metal, wood, and organic dusts. Men are affected more often than women.
Prognosis is poor for severely progressed cases due to impaired breathing, concomitant illness, and complications. Common complications include emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, and pneumonia. Patients with pulmonary fibrosis have a fivefold increase in risk of lung cancer compared with the general population. Life expectancy may be only 3-5 years following diagnosis. There is no known cure.
J84.10 – Pulmonary fibrosis, unspecified
51615001 – Fibrosis of lung
- Pneumonia (see, eg, acute interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia)
- Asbestosis, berylliosis, silicosis
- Rheumatic disease
- Pulmonary edema
- Eosinophilic granuloma
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
- Bronchoalveolar carcinoma
- Restrictive lung disease
- Pleuropulmonary fibroelastosis