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Pulmonary hypertension
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Pulmonary hypertension

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Contributors: Paritosh Prasad MD, Eric Ingerowski MD, FAAP
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Pulmonary hypertension is a multifaceted disease. It either results from primary pulmonary arterial vasculopathy or is secondary to metabolic, thrombotic, or hemodynamic disease. The condition is characterized by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure >25 mm Hg at rest measured by right heart catheterization. It can be divided into the following 5 groups:

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)
  • Group 1 – Elevation of pressure in the pulmonary arteries (idiopathic, hereditary, toxin induced). Examples include idiopathic PAH, hereditary PAH, and PAH due to connective tissue disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, schistosomiasis, or drug use.
Pulmonary hypertension
  • Group 2 – Elevation of pressure in the pulmonary venous system due to left heart disease.
  • Group 3 – Elevation of pressure in the pulmonary venous system due to lung disease or hypoxia.
  • Group 4 – Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
  • Group 5 – Pulmonary hypertension with unclear or multifactorial mechanisms.
Diagnosis can be challenging because other disease manifestations may mask pulmonary hypertension symptoms. The most common symptoms include dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, chest pain, fatigue, peripheral edema, palpitations, and syncope. On physical examination, there may be signs of right sided heart failure.

Related topic: Portopulmonary hypertension

Codes

ICD10CM:
I27.0 – Primary pulmonary hypertension

SNOMEDCT:
70995007 – Pulmonary Hypertension

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Diagnostic Pearls

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

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Management Pearls

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Therapy

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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References

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Last Reviewed: 07/12/2018
Last Updated: 03/13/2019
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Pulmonary hypertension
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Pulmonary hypertension : Peripheral leg edema, Dyspnea, Lethargy, Presyncope, Exertional angina, Wheezing
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.