No specific cause of RA has been identified. Risk factors include African ancestry, mature age, severe hypertension, and underlying chronic kidney disease (especially diabetic nephropathy). There are genetic variants associated with RA.
Typical presentation consists of an African-American individual with a long-term history of hypertension, elevations in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine concentration that slowly progress over time, and mild proteinuria. Most common clinical symptoms are manifestations of severe hypertension and include blurry vision, confusion, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Most common clinical signs include hypertension-related organ damage, changes in retinal vessels, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Some complications include heart failure, stroke, and/or uremia.
The primary goal of treatment is to control blood pressure with the use of antihypertensive drugs to prevent progression to renal failure.
I70.1 – Arteriosclerosis of renal artery
32916005 – Nephrosclerosis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls