There are 3 clinical forms of scleredema:
- The classic type (type 1) is observed in patients after a recent bacterial or viral febrile infection and tends to resolve spontaneously over several weeks to months.
- Type 2 occurs without a preceding infection and follows a chronic progressive course. It can be associated with paraproteinemias (most often immunoglobulin G [IgG], followed by immunoglobulin A [IgA]).
- Type 3, also known as diabetic scleredema or scleredema diabeticorum, is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) and is thought to be due to glycosylation of collagen. Unlike types 1 and 2, diabetic scleredema is observed more frequently in men.