Scoliosis types are based on etiology. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common. It is usually diagnosed in adolescence, but can also be diagnosed in juveniles or infants. Neuromuscular scoliosis is associated with conditions such as cerebral palsy, myopathy, and spina bifida. Congenital scoliosis is the rarest form. It is present at birth and is caused by incomplete prenatal spine development. In rare instances, early severe progressive scoliosis is associated with an autosomal recessive deficiency in sensation due to a mutation of PIEZO2. Adult degenerative scoliosis is associated with age-related degeneration of disks and joints.
In cases that require treatment, braces are the mainstay of therapy. Severe cases may require surgery.
M41.9 – Scoliosis, unspecified
298382003 – Scoliosis deformity of spine