Sneddon syndrome in Adult
Sneddon syndrome predominantly occurs in young women, and the first cerebral ischemic event is usually before the age of 45. The key cutaneous feature is a persistent livedo reticularis, often in a livedo racemosa pattern (form of livedo reticularis consisting of a large branching pattern, usually on the trunk, limbs, and proximal extremities).
Many individuals with Sneddon syndrome have antiphospholipid antibodies. The prevalence has been reported to be from 0% to 85%. Regardless of whether patients have antiphospholipid antibodies, individuals with Sneddon syndrome have identical occlusive arteriopathy and endothelial damage. Up to 35% will have antiendothelial cell antibodies.
- Livedo racemosa – often precedes the onset of focal neurologic symptoms.
- Headache and vertigo – most frequent symptoms; may precede livedo racemosa by several years, but are nonspecific.
- Ischemic strokes – most symptoms are from middle cerebral artery infarcts: hemiparesis, sensory alterations, and aphasia. Less commonly, there may be dysarthria, visual field deficits, or sudden spontaneous falls.
- Transient ischemic attacks
- Vascular dementia
- Secondary symptoms and other organ manifestations include arterial hypertension (65%), valvulopathy (61%), ischemic heart disease, ocular symptoms, renal involvement (50% to 70%), gastrointestinal symptoms, recurrent deep vein thrombosis, and fetal loss.
For more information, see OMIM.
M30.8 – Other conditions related to polyarteritis nodosa
238776001 – Sneddon syndrome
- Livedoid vasculopathy – Painful punched-out ulcers around ankles in young women.
- Polyarteritis nodosa – Cutaneous variant is more likely to have livedo racemosa and nodules. Histology: leukocytoclastic vasculitis.
- Cholesterol emboli – Livedo reticularis in an elderly person with atherosclerotic disease who may have had recent vascular surgery. Characteristic histology shows cholesterol clefts within thrombi.
- Necrotizing livedo reticularis – May involve cutaneous nodules and ulcerations. This has many disease associations, including leukocytoclastic vasculitis, calciphylaxis, cryoglobulinemia, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, atrial myxomas, Graves' disease, connective tissue diseases, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and renal cancer.
- Amantadine-induced livedo reticularis – Usually occurs on the legs. (Amantadine is used to treat Parkinson's disease and fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis.)
- Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with livedo reticularis is associated with epilepsy.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with livedo reticularis is associated with more severe SLE.
- Essential thrombocythemia
- Thromboangiitis obliterans – Rest pain, chronic ulcers on distal extremities, gangrene of fingers and/or toes.