Disease occurs worldwide. More than 80% of reported disease in the United States is in the Southern region.
In the United States, syphilis cases occur more often in males (5:1 male:female ratio), individuals of African or Hispanic descent, men who have sex with men, and sex workers. An increased incidence of syphilis is associated with HIV positivity.
Gummas are locally destructive lesions of skin, bone, or involved organs, which may heal spontaneously with scarring but often recur. The term "gumma" is derived from the appearance of slimy central necrotic tissue in ulcers. Skin lesions are usually asymptomatic. When the tongue is involved with an early glossitis, there may be discomfort eating hot or acidic foods. Bone lesions are painful. Symptoms of neurosyphilis may include headache, dizziness, paresis, behavior change, dementia, pain, ataxia, blindness, deafness, incontinence, and impotence.
Systemic signs of tertiary disease include a heart murmur, cranial nerve palsies, pupillary abnormalities (Argyll Robertson pupil), signs of tabes dorsalis, foot ulcers, and iritis.
Tertiary, or late syphilis, occurs after a latent period of 2-20 years after infection. Damage to the skin, bones, and the central nervous (CNS) and cardiovascular systems is due to host delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to a small number of organisms. An accelerated course and neurologic disease are observed more often in HIV infection, when disease progresses to the tertiary phase in months rather than years. Skin lesions endure for months to years untreated. If present, neurosyphilis or cardiovascular syphilis may result in death. Prognosis depends upon the duration and extent of disease.
Related topics: ocular syphilis, early congenital syphilis, late congenital syphilis
A52.9 – Late syphilis, unspecified
72083004 – Late syphilis