Classic history and presentation: The condition presents as severe knee pain and effusion due to hemarthrosis, limited range of motion (ROM), and difficulty bearing weight on the affected side. Patient history includes a trauma to the affected knee with resulting hyperextension. Patients with tibial eminence fractures may present with knee instability.
Prevalence: Tibial eminence fractures, or tibial spine avulsion fractures, are very rare in the adult population and infrequent in pediatric patients, occurring in only 3 in 100 000 children who sustain knee trauma per year.
- Age – Tibial spine avulsion fractures can occur at any age, but typically occur in patients aged 8-14 years.
- Sex / gender – No difference in occurrence has been observed.
- Young age (skeletally immature)
- Athletic participation (biking, soccer, skiing, etc)
Grade / classification system: The Meyers and McKeever Classification was published in 1959 and has been used to classify the degree of fracture and determine treatment methods.
- Type I fractures are nondisplaced (< 3 mm)
- Type II fractures are partially displaced with intact posterior hinge
- Type IIIA fractures are completely displaced and not rotated
- Type IIIB fractures are completely displaced and rotated
- Type IV (added by Zaricznyj in 1977) fractures are completely displaced, rotated, and comminuted