Classic history and presentation: Patients will typically present subtlety with pain or instability that may be described as "buckling" events, recurrent knee effusions, or periarticular tendonitis. Patients may describe a total joint that "doesn't feel right" or feels unstable. Rarely, patients might present acutely with a prosthetic knee dislocation. However, true symptomatology will likely exist on a spectrum between the scenarios above.
- Age – No bias
- Sex / gender – No bias
Pathophysiology: The pathophysiology of this presentation stems from the biomechanical interaction between the implanted components and the patient's remaining native tissues. When there is an alignment mismatch in the axial, coronal, or sagittal planes between the remaining ligamentous / bony structures and the implanted components, then instability can result. For late instability, wearing of the components can lead to gradual malalignment and subsequent failure / instability.
Classification: A true validated classification system is not globally utilized; however, the type and timing of instability is typically discussed in terms of the following: early instability, late instability, extension instability, flexion instability, mid-flexion instability, and global instability.