Acquired segmental tracheomalacia may be due to endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, chest trauma, lung transplant, emphysema, and external tracheal compression from cysts, tumors, and abscesses. Patients with recurring or prolonged intubation are at greater risk. Common signs and symptoms are cough, dyspnea, phlegm retention, wheezing, and stridor. Symptoms are exacerbated by asthma, emphysema, bronchitis, and smoking.
Treatments depend on severity of condition and presenting symptoms, including surgical repair, stenting, tracheostomy, and continuous positive airway pressure for acutely ill patients to maintain open airway.
Mounier-Kuhn (idiopathic giant trachea) is an uncommon congenital type typically presenting in young adults. Patients manifest breathing difficulties, chronic cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, difficult airway secretion clearance, and recurring bronchopulmonary infections. Wheezing, crackles, and finger clubbing are noted.
J39.8 – Other specified diseases of upper respiratory tract
95434006 – Tracheomalacia