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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Traumatic brain injury
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Other Resources UpToDate PubMed
Potentially life-threatening emergency

Traumatic brain injury

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Contributors: Andrea Wasilewski MD, Jamie Adams MD, Richard L. Barbano MD, PhD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves damage to the brain due to an external force such as a direct blow, rapid acceleration / deceleration, or penetrating head injury. There may be cerebral contusions, hematomas, or a diffuse axonal injury identified on imaging or pathology. Clinical signs and symptoms depend on the severity and location of the brain injury. Severity ranges from mild concussion without loss of consciousness to severe injury resulting in coma or death. It is the leading cause of death in the United States among individuals aged 1-45.

In concussion, patients may experience headache, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, tinnitus, balance problems, sleep impairment, difficulty concentrating, or mood changes, among other symptoms. In severe TBI, there may be intractable headache, repeated vomiting, pupillary changes, altered consciousness, agitation, weakness, numbness, slurred speech, or aphasia.

Violence, sports injuries, falls, and car accidents are some of the many causes of TBI. Survivors may have significant and permanent disability. The mechanism and location of the injury affect the pathology of the injury and prognosis for recovery.

Codes

ICD10CM:
S09.90XA – Unspecified injury of head, initial encounter

SNOMEDCT:
127295002 – Traumatic brain injury

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

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Therapy

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References

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Last Reviewed: 07/25/2018
Last Updated: 09/04/2018
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.
Potentially life-threatening emergency
Traumatic brain injury
Print 1 Images
Traumatic brain injury : Dizziness, Headache, Nausea/vomiting, Delirium, Loss of consciousness, Drowsiness, Focal neurologic deficit
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.