Upper airway obstruction
- In children, upper airway obstruction is primarily allergic, infectious (croup, epiglottitis, abscess), or caused by foreign body aspiration.
- While adults may also suffer from upper airway obstruction of an infectious etiology, it is more commonly caused by malignancy, trauma, or inflammatory diseases.
- The supraglottic region can be obstructed by croup, supraglottitis, epiglottitis, neck abscess, Ludwig angina, or angioedema.
- The glottic region can be obstructed iatrogenically (eg, prolonged intubation, complications during thoracic or anterior neck surgery, botulinum toxin injection), with paralysis of the vocal cords.
- The subglottic / tracheal region can be obstructed by subglottic stenosis.
- In addition, foreign bodies, tumors, inhalation injuries, and traumatic injuries can affect any of these regions.
Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology; however, intubation may be required in severe cases regardless of the cause.
J98.8 – Other specified respiratory disorders
79688008 – Respiratory obstruction