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Aplastic anemia
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Aplastic anemia

Contributors: Nina Haghi MD, Mary Anne Morgan MD, Paritosh Prasad MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare disorder caused by the failure of bone marrow to produce hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), causing severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia. If untreated, AA has a very high mortality.

AA presents with pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy will reveal hypocellularity. It can be caused most commonly by autoimmune processes, direct injury to the bone marrow (toxic effect, drugs, radiation, etc), viral infection, clonal disorders (eg, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia), or genetic disorders (eg, Fanconi anemia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, thrombopoietin abnormalities, telomere abnormalities). Despite the various pathophysiologic mechanisms that can lead to AA, the disorder remains rare, with an incidence in the Western world of 2 per million per year, with half of all cases occurring before the age of 30 years.

Patients with AA usually present with recurrent infections due to neutropenia, mucosal hemorrhage or menorrhagia due to thrombocytopenia, and fatigue, dyspnea, and cardiopulmonary compromise due to anemia.

For more information, see OMIM.

Codes

ICD10CM:
D61.9 – Aplastic anemia, unspecified

SNOMEDCT:
306058006 – Aplastic Anemia

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Diagnostic Pearls

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Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

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Management Pearls

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Therapy

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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References

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Last Reviewed:04/22/2021
Last Updated:05/25/2021
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Aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia : Fatigue, Easy bruising, Dyspnea, Menorrhagia, Pallor, Gingival bleeding, WBC decreased, PLT decreased, RBC decreased
Clinical image of Aplastic anemia
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