Bronchiectasis is the consequence of multiple contributing factors culminating in a viscous cycle of respiratory infection, inflammation, and damage. An initial respiratory insult or preexisting condition results in impaired secretion clearance and subsequent infection with inflammation, leading to remodeling and dilation of the airways, further impairing airway secretion clearance and setting the stage for recurrent infection, inflammation, and recurrent damage and remodeling.
Patients typically present with chronic cough, often but not always with sputum production, with a course characterized by intermittent exacerbations. It can be difficult to distinguish from pneumonia in many circumstances. Management involves treating the underlying etiology and improving airway clearance to break the cycle of recurrent infections and progressive airway destruction.
When bronchiectasis is caused by an underlying chronic medical condition (eg, cystic fibrosis, ATTD), daily maintenance is critical to minimizing morbidity from bronchiectasis.
J47.9 – Bronchiectasis, uncomplicated
12295008 – Bronchiectasis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Cystic fibrosis
- Chronic bronchitis
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Mycobacterial lung disease (eg, tuberculosis)
- Endobronchial obstruction (foreign body, tumor)
- Tracheobronchomalacia and tracheobronchomegaly (see tracheomalacia)
- Primary ciliary dyskinesia
- Hypogammaglobulinemia (eg, congenital)
- Young syndrome
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
- Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Drug Reaction Data