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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Cardiac tamponade
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Potentially life-threatening emergency

Cardiac tamponade

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Contributors: Ryan Hoefen MD, PhD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Compression exerted on the heart by the accumulation of blood or fluid in the pericardium, compromising cardiac output. Primary symptoms are shortness of breath accompanied by hypotension and tachycardia. Other findings include cyanosis, peripheral leg edema, chest pain, decreased heart sounds, fatigue, tachypnea, syncope, anuria, oliguria, pericardial friction rub, and pulsus paradoxus. Similar etiology as pericardial effusion or hemorrhage, including a wide variety of infections, autoimmune diseases, autoinflammatory disorders, tumor growth, trauma, radiation, iatrogenic causes, and cardiac or metabolic abnormalities. Rarely drug induced.

Quick identification and treatment by drainage of the fluid is essential.

Codes

ICD10CM:
I31.4 – Cardiac tamponade

SNOMEDCT:
35304003 – Cardiac Tamponade

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

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Drug Reaction Data

Below is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.

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References

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Last Updated: 10/13/2016
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Potentially life-threatening emergency
Cardiac tamponade
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Cardiac tamponade : Neck vein distension, Dyspnea, HR increased, BP decreased
Imaging Studies image of Cardiac tamponade
Axial CT image demonstrates a large pericardial effusion which is flattening the cardiac ventricles and concerning for tamponade.
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