Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Advanced age, male sex, a family history of colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease (especially ulcerative colitis) are the strongest risk factors for developing colorectal cancer. Certain hereditary factors, such as polyposis coli, MUTYH-associated polyposis, and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), also increase the risk of colon cancer development. In many instances, this risk can be modified by screening or surveillance colonoscopy, as most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps, which can be fully resected. Lynch syndrome is associated with 3% of all new cases of colorectal cancer.
Prognosis is related to cancer staging (tumor depth, lymph node involvement, metastatic spread) at time of diagnosis. Treatment often includes a combination of surgical resection and chemotherapy.
Related topic: Rectal carcinoma
C18.9 – Malignant neoplasm of colon, unspecified
363406005 – Malignant tumor of colon
- Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis)
- Internal or external hemorrhoids
- Arteriovenous malformation
- Small bowel malabsorption (eg, celiac disease, protein losing enteropathy)
- Carcinoid colonic tumors
- Colonic lymphoma
- Kaposi sarcoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus
- Infectious colitis (eg, Clostridium difficile colitis, amebic colitis)
- Malignancy with colorectal metastasis
- Extrinsic bowel compression (eg, genitourinary masses, cysts)
Last Updated: 08/31/2018