Dacryocystitis - External and Internal Eye
Dacryocystitis refers to inflammation of the lacrimal sac and/or lacrimal excretory apparatus. It may be acute or chronic. The most common cause of dacryocystitis in adults is lacrimal duct stenosis with stagnation of lacrimal excretions and resultant infection. The most commonly identified bacterial isolates are species of staphylococci and streptococci, but gram-negative organisms and anaerobes may also cause the condition.
Acute dacryocystitis usually presents with the sudden onset of pain, swelling, and erythema at the medial canthal region. Chronic dacryocystitis most commonly manifests as the insidious onset of epiphora (excessing tearing). Most often, the site of obstruction is nasal rather than ocular (nasal tumors or foreign bodies, congenital malformations, inflamed nasal mucosa, post-traumatic anatomic abnormalities, etc). Other conditions and treatments that may predispose to lacrimal outflow obstruction include chemotherapy, radiation, lymphoma, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sarcoidosis, and cicatricial pemphigoid.
Acute dacryocystitis may lead to formation of a lacrimal sac abscess and spread of the infection to the orbit with subsequent orbital cellulitis. Treatment is with topical and systemic antibiotics acutely; definitive treatment often requires surgery. In adults, dacryocystitis is more common in middle-aged to older women. It occurs less frequently in blacks than in whites due to slight anatomic differences between the races.
H04.309 – Unspecified dacryocystitis of unspecified lacrimal passage
85777005 – Dacryocystitis
- Orbital cellulitis
- Preseptal cellulitis
- Cavernous sinus thrombosis
- Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid
- Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid
- Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
- Necrotizing fasciitis
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Xanthelasma palpebrarum