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Diabetes mellitus type 1
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Diabetes mellitus type 1

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Contributors: David Brodell MD, Paritosh Prasad MD, Lowell A. Goldsmith MD, MPH
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Synopsis

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease of insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. In the vast majority of cases, insulin deficiency follows immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. It most commonly presents in childhood or adolescence, but a significant number of cases are diagnosed in adults. Diabetes manifests only after the destruction of a majority of pancreatic beta cells.

Patients may present with symptoms of hyperglycemia such as weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, nocturnal enuresis, and blurry vision. T1DM patients may present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a state of severe dehydration and acidemia due to insulin deficiency. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, emesis, inattention, confusion, and even coma in the setting of hyperglycemia and elevated anion gap. DKA is often associated with compensatory hyperventilation (Kussmaul respiration) in the setting of primary metabolic acidosis and a fruity breath odor.

T1DM is very rare in some third-world countries, and an increasing incidence may be associated with modernization and advanced public health systems. T1DM is most common in Scandinavia and Northern Europe. China and parts of South America have the lowest incidence. The pathogenesis appears to be rooted in a genetic component that interacts with an environmental insult in most cases.

For more information, see OMIM.

Related topics: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic dermopathy, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, Neurogenic ulcer, Bullosis diabeticorum, Diabetic vulvitis

Codes

ICD10CM:
E10.9 – Type 1 diabetes mellitus without complications

SNOMEDCT:
46635009 – Diabetes Mellitus Type I

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Last Reviewed: 01/24/2017
Last Updated: 04/18/2018
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Diabetes mellitus type 1
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Diabetes mellitus type 1 : Fatigue, Dehydration, Hyperglycemia, Polyuria, Polydipsia
Copyright © 2018 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.