Eczema herpeticum in Infant/Neonate
Eczema herpeticum is more commonly seen in patients with atopic dermatitis but may also be seen in cases of Darier disease, autoimmune bullous dermatoses, burns, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and other forms of dermatitis such as irritant contact and seborrheic dermatitis. It mostly affects children but can occur in any age group.
Risk factors that have been proposed for the development of eczema herpeticum include mutations in filaggrin and deficiency of cathelicidins, skin antimicrobial peptides, in the skin.
Patients can develop numerous vesicles that may appear in crops for several days. Associated systemic symptoms can include high fevers, lymphadenopathy, and malaise. The primary infection is usually more severe than recurrent episodes.
Complications of eczema herpeticum include secondary bacterial infection and multi-organ involvement, including keratoconjunctivitis, meningitis, and encephalitis. Commonly implicated pathogens in bacterial superinfection include Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. Systemic viremia can result in serious morbidity and mortality, especially in infants.
Eczema herpeticum is rare during the neonatal period. If HSV infection develops during the first week of life, the diagnosis of neonatal herpes simplex virus should be considered. Eczema herpeticum is a medical emergency in neonates, infants, and children, and early treatment with antiviral therapy is required.
B00.0 – Eczema herpeticum
186535001 – Eczema herpeticum
- Neonatal herpes simplex virus
- Neonatal bacterial sepsis
- Group B streptococcal infection (see neonatal bacterial sepsis)
- Incontinentia pigmenti
- Staphylococcal infection (see neonatal bacterial sepsis)
- Varicella / herpes zoster infection
- Bullous impetigo
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
- Congenital syphilis
- Neonatal or congenital varicella
- Contact dermatitis (irritant, allergic)
- Vesicular viral exanthem
- Erythema toxicum neonatorum
- Transient neonatal pustular melanosis
- Hand-foot-and-mouth disease