Hirsutism may be idiopathic, or it may be linked to other conditions. Familial hirsutism is generally facial with a prolonged preauricular hair line. Other etiologies can be considered on the basis of the organ causing the abnormality. Adrenal hirsutism may be due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia or hypercorticism. Causes of increased cortisol include primary nodular hyperplasia, adrenal adenoma, and adrenal carcinoma.
Ovarian hirsutism can be due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or ovarian tumors. Pituitary hirsutism is associated with Cushing disease, a prolactin-secreting adenoma, and psychotropic medications that increase prolactin (ie, antipsychotics). Ectopic hormone production, such as the production of ACTH by small cell lung cancer or HCG by choriocarcinoma, also leads to hirsutism. Anabolic steroids lead to the condition as well.
Hirsutism may be associated with seborrhea, acne, and androgenetic alopecia (termed SAHA syndrome). These findings can also be seen in PCOS; however, in SAHA, menstrual cycles are not anovulatory and ovarian ultrasound is unremarkable. HAIR-AN syndrome has also been characterized, which is marked by hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and acanthosis nigricans.
L68.0 – Hirsutism
399939002 – Hirsutism
- Familial hirsutism – mostly facial in the preauricular area
- Cushing disease
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
- Anorexia nervosa
- Porphyria cutanea tarda
- Idiopathic hirsutism
- Virilizing neoplasm
- Ovarian hyperthecosis
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
- SAHA syndrome
- HAIR-AN syndrome
- Persistent adrenarche syndrome
- Excess ovarian androgen release syndrome