Influenza - Chem-Bio-Rad Suspicion
Current flu season: Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of May 20, 2023, seasonal influenza activity remains low across the United States, with both influenza A and influenza B being reported by public health laboratories. Coinfection with influenza A or B viruses and SARS-CoV-2 can occur.
Influenza is highly contagious and is spread by aerosol droplets. The incubation period is 1-4 days, but it becomes contagious 1 day prior to the onset of symptoms. The mortality rate of influenza is low but tends to be higher in the elderly and the immunocompromised. Flu activity usually peaks in February.
Influenza presents with classic flu-like illness consisting of the sudden onset of fever, malaise, sore throat, nonproductive cough, myalgias, headache, and nasal congestion. Chills are common, as are nausea and vomiting in children. After 48 hours, cough may increase and produce sputum. There may be associated dyspnea and/or mild-to-moderate pleuritic chest pain. Upon physical examination, unilateral or bilateral inspiratory rales may be appreciated or diminished breath sounds. Pregnant individuals are at increased risk for severe illness from influenza.
Most viruses that affect the respiratory tract can cause a rash, flu included (see viral exanthem).
The most common pulmonary complication of influenza is secondary bacterial pneumonia. This diagnosis can be determined by patient history. This can occur up to 2 weeks after the initial symptoms and includes recurrence of fever, chills, pleuritic chest pain, and productive cough. Many bacteria may be the culprit, but the most common are pneumococci. Staphylococcus aureus has also been implicated in children; there has been an increase in the number of deaths in which both influenza and pneumonia or bacteremia due to S aureus were identified.
Primary viral pneumonia is the complication responsible for the most influenza-related deaths. Those with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease or who are pregnant are at the greatest risk. The initial clinical presentation is the same, but dyspnea increases in severity. Productive cough may be blood tinged. Massive hemoptysis has been reported. When severe, there may be profound respiratory distress with tachypnea, tachycardia, and cyanosis. Rales and wheezes will spread throughout the chest from the lower lung.
The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 was particularly virulent, killing over 20 million people worldwide. With present day biotechnology, it would be possible to produce an influenza virus weapon with traits of both the H5N1 and the 1918 influenza viruses. As a weapon, influenza could be released as an aerosol. The mortality of a designer influenza containing genes from H5N1 and/or the 1918 Spanish flu would presumably be much higher than for naturally occurring influenza. The initial symptoms produced by many of the biological weapons are nearly identical to those produced by influenza ("flu-like illness").
J10.1 – Influenza due to other identified influenza virus with other respiratory manifestations
6142004 – Influenza
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Inhalational anthrax
- Dengue fever
- Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease)
- Marburg virus infection
- Nipah virus infection
- Q fever
- Rift Valley fever
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever
- Staphylococcal enterotoxin B
- Typhoid fever
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis