ContentsSynopsisCodesLook ForDiagnostic PearlsDifferential Diagnosis & PitfallsBest TestsManagement PearlsTherapyReferencesView all Images (17)
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection
See also in: Pulmonary
Print
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection

See also in: Pulmonary
Print Images (17)
Contributors: Marvin Turck MD
Other Resources UpToDate PubMed

Synopsis

Mycobacterium avium and intracellulare (MAI) is an acid-fast atypical mycobacterium complex that is ubiquitous. The respiratory tract is the most common site for acquiring infection, which is usually inapparent. Most patients with clinical disease are immunocompromised, usually with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although transplant, leukemia, and lymphoma patients may be affected. MAI infection occurs clinically in 18%-27% of AIDS patients, with a higher proportion noted at autopsy.

Three clinical forms of infection are seen:
  • Primary post-traumatic inoculation (which is rare and usually seen in immunocompetent persons) – Most cases have been seen in children aged 2-10 years and do not progress to systemic disease.
  • Disseminated systemic disease (DMAI) is most often seen in the immunocompromised patient and commonly involves the lungs, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin. The patient may have fever, pulmonary symptoms, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss, and fatigue. Untreated DMAI is associated with increased mortality.
  • Cervical adenitis in children (median age 3 years) is most commonly caused by MAI, having an indolent course and causing local destruction but only rarely disseminating.
The incidence of DMAI infection has fallen with the use of antiretrovirals and prophylactic antibiotics.

Codes

ICD10CM:
A31.1 – Cutaneous mycobacterial infection

SNOMEDCT:
402979005 – Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection of skin

Look For

Subscription Required

Diagnostic Pearls

Subscription Required

Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls

Best Tests

Subscription Required

Management Pearls

Subscription Required

Therapy

Subscription Required

References

Subscription Required

Last Updated: 11/15/2017
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection
See also in: Pulmonary
Print 17 Images Filter Images
View all Images (17)
(with subscription)
 Reset
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection : Cough, Fatigue, Fever, Hepatomegaly, Rash, Plaque with ulcer, Weight loss, Splenomegaly
Clinical image of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection
Copyright © 2019 VisualDx®. All rights reserved.