Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
NMOSD is associated with disease-specific antibodies including aquaporin (AQP)-4-IgG and, less commonly, anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies. Thought to be mediated by the humoral immune system, NMOSD has a relapsing course, with months to years between attacks, and disability is based on accumulation of deficits from attacks. Incidence is up to 10 times higher in women than men, with onset typically in the third to fourth decade, although the disease can be seen in children and older adults. NMOSD is more prevalent in those of African, East Asian, and Latin American descent than in those of Northern European descent.
Prognosis is variable and depends on the number and severity of attacks, although rates of disability and mortality are high.
G36.0 – Neuromyelitis optica [Devic]
25044007 – Neuromyelitis optica
- Multiple sclerosis
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Sjögren syndrome
- Behçet disease
- Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis
- Transverse myelitis
- Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord
- Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula
- Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1
- Infection with HIV