Pathologic confirmation of capsular, perineural, or blood vessel invasion of parathyroid adjacent structures or distant metastases can distinguish malignancy from benign adenoma. Untreated, parathyroid gland carcinoma has a poor prognosis. The likely cause of death is due to complications caused by hypercalcemia.
Management includes surgical "en bloc" resection of ipsilateral lobe and involved tissue. More severe malignancy calls for comprehensive resection. Radiation therapy has mixed reviews. Chemotherapy has not garnered positive results; however, treatment of hypercalcemia by pharmacotherapies can provide temporary relief of symptoms. Calcimimetics (to decrease PTH production) may reduce complications and extend survival time.
C75.0 – Malignant neoplasm of parathyroid gland
255037004 – Parathyroid carcinoma
- Parathyroid hyperplasia
- Parathyroid adenoma
- Ectopic thyroid tissue
- Thyroid tumor or malignancy
- Multinodular goiter
- Metastasis to thyroid