Renal cell carcinoma
The most common type of RCC is clear cell carcinoma, accounting for 75% of cases. Other categories include bilateral and multifocal papillary tumors (10%), chromophobe tumors (5%), benign oncocytomas (3%-7%), and rare but aggressive Bellini duct tumors (< 1%). Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a disorder that causes benign tumors of smooth muscle in the skin and uterus. It increases the risk of papillary RCC at an early age and should be considered in those with family history of RCC.
Clinical presentation includes hematuria, abdominal pain, flank mass or abdominal mass, fever, weight loss, anemia, or varicocele. Many patients have tumors discovered incidentally with abdominal imaging performed for another reason.
Paraneoplastic manifestations of RCC include hypercalcemia, production of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, polycythemia, hepatic dysfunction, thrombocytosis, secondary AA amyloidosis, fever, and weight loss in 20% of individuals.
Mortality from RCC has been declining due to earlier detection.
C64.9 – Malignant neoplasm of unspecified kidney, except renal pelvis
702391001 – Renal cell carcinoma
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls