Clinical presentation varies depending on the pathogenic organism, and any given symptom is usually not specific to one particular infection. A thorough maternal history is necessary to identify possible exposures. Some signs indicative of possible congenital infection include rash, thrombocytopenia, jaundice, seizures, microcephaly, or congenital heart disease. Some patients may be asymptomatic at birth.
The classic findings in toxoplasmosis include chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications. For rubella, the classic findings are cataracts, heart defects, and sensorineural hearing loss. For cytomegalovirus, common findings are low birth weight, central nervous system (CNS) damage, liver involvement, and ocular or auditory damage. Newborns with herpes simplex virus infection can have localized disease, CNS disease, or disseminated disease.
In the United States, pregnant patients are frequently screened for rubella and syphilis in an attempt to prevent congenital infection.
P39.9 – Infection specific to the perinatal period, unspecified
41679006 – Toxoplasmosis, other infections, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus syndrome