Zika virus infection in Adult
After being bitten by an infected mosquito, it takes approximately 3-12 days for symptoms to appear. The diagnostic criteria of Zika virus disease include a widespread morbilliform rash with at least one of the following manifestations: arthralgia, arthritis, and/or conjunctivitis. Other symptoms may include fever, myalgias, headache, sore throat, cough, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Symptoms are typically mild, short-lasting (2-7 days), and self-limited. In a 2019 review, rash was seen in 90% of 240 cases. Mucocutaneous hemorrhage occurred in around 8%, and conjunctivitis was seen in just over one-third of individuals. While no sequelae are typically seen, Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological disorders have been reported in patients after exposure to Zika virus. In addition, viral infection in pregnant women has been associated with microcephaly in infants (see congenital Zika virus infection). There are also cases of fetal loss in women who were infected with Zika virus. It is thought that these outcomes are the result of congenital infection with Zika virus.
Because the clinical presentation overlaps with those of other arboviruses, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, cases may be mistaken for another arboviral infection.
Zika virus has the potential to cause outbreaks, but cases in travelers returning to nonendemic areas are infrequently reported. While Zika virus is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito, there have been reports of it being spread human to human via sexual transmission as well as via blood transfusion.
Previous dengue exposure may confer a protective effect against Zika virus infection.
CDC Level-2 Travel Alert (Practice Enhanced Precautions): The CDC has issued a travel alert for Mexico, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico:
- Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. Travel to any area of Mexico below 6500 feet is strongly discouraged. Those who must travel to one of these areas should talk to their doctor or other health care provider first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip.
- Women trying to become pregnant should consult with their health care provider before traveling and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the trip.
A92.8 – Other specified mosquito-borne viral fevers
3928002 – Zika virus disease
- Related flaviviruses (dengue fever, yellow fever, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis virus)
- Viral exanthem
- Drug exanthem
- Rubeola (measles)
- Kawasaki disease (occurs primarily in children younger than 6 years)
- Human immunodeficiency virus primary infection