Oral candidiasis in Infant/Neonate
Transmission of infection occurs either at the time of delivery during passage through the vaginal canal or after delivery during handling or breastfeeding by the mother. Neonates that become infected at the time of delivery usually present with symptoms between 2 and 4 weeks of age. Infection later on in infancy can result from repeated use of antibiotics or occur in infants with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or a primary immunodeficiency syndrome.
Oral candidiasis appears in a number of clinical forms. The most common form is the pseudomembranous variety: white plaque formation typically appears on the tongue, lips, inner surface of the cheeks, and palate and can leave behind punctate bleeding and patches of reddened mucosa when scraped.
Candida at the corners of the mouth is known as angular cheilitis or perlèche. Crusting, small ulcers, or fissures can be present at the angles of the mouth.
The infant may be symptomless or may be generally irritable and show a decreased willingness to feed.
Related topics: Neonatal candidiasis, Diaper dermatitis candidiasis, Angular cheilitis, Congenital candidiasis
B37.0 – Candidal stomatitis
79740000 – Oral candidiasis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Aphthous ulcer
- Lichen planus – Usually reticulated and erythematous rather than plaque-like.
- Geographic tongue
- Diphtheria – The membrane in diphtheria can be mistaken for candidiasis, although in diphtheria there may be hemorrhagic crusts around the mouth and nares.
- White sponge nevus – There may be a family history of this very uncommon genodermatosis.
Drug Reaction Data