Alerts and Notices
SynopsisColitis is a broad term used to describe inflammation of the colon. Etiologies include inflammatory bowel disease, infectious colitis, microscopic colitis, ischemia, medication-associated colitis, radiation colitis, diversion colitis, graft-versus-host disease, and diverticulitis. In terms of special populations, neonates are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis and immunocompromised patients are at risk for neutropenic enterocolitis.
Symptoms of colitis vary depending on etiology but can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and hematochezia. Systemic symptoms such as fevers and chills may be present. Risk factors for colitis vary depending on the specific etiology. It is sometimes associated with somatic mutations in the NFKBIZ, TRAF3IP2, PIGR, or ARID1A genes.
For discussion of specific colitis diagnoses, see the following.
Infectious colitis caused by, eg:
- Diarrheal Escherichia coli
- Clostridioides difficile colitis
- Amebic colitis
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Checkpoint inhibitors, eg, ipilimumab, nivolumab
- See Drug Reaction Data below for further information
K52.9 – Noninfective gastroenteritis and colitis, unspecified
64226004 – Colitis
Differential Diagnosis & Pitfalls
- Irritable bowel disease – can be seen in patients of all ages with a history of intermittent diarrhea and constipation.
- Lactose intolerance – can cause diarrhea and abdominal pain in both children and adults.
Drug Reaction DataBelow is a list of drugs with literature evidence indicating an adverse association with this diagnosis. The list is continually updated through ongoing research and new medication approvals. Click on Citations to sort by number of citations or click on Medication to sort the medications alphabetically.